Syllabi for Ph.D/M.Phil (Applied Sciences- Physics/Chemistry/Maths)
Mathematical Methods of Physics
Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Central limit theorem.
Newton’s laws. Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions. Two body Collisions – scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames. Rigid body dynamics- moment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativity- Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.
Electrostatics: Gauss’s law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems. Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors. Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields.
Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Time-independent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection.
Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro- and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Ideal Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law.
Electronics and Experimental Methods
Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs). Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics.
Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least squares fitting,
Atomic & Molecular Physics
Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium and alkali atom. Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules. Lasers: spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients. Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.
Condensed Matter Physics
Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat. Free electron theory and electronic specific heat. Response and relaxation phenomena. Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators and semiconductors. Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions. Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations. Ordered phases of matter: translational and orientational order, kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.
Nuclear and Particle Physics
Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.
Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.
- Chemical periodicity, 2. Structure and bonding in homo- and heteronuclear molecules, including shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory). 3. Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid base concept, Non-aqueous solvents. 4. Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, synthesis, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds. 5. Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties, reaction mechanisms. 6. Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties, redox chemistry, analytical applications. 7. Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis. 8. Cages and metal clusters.
- Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods. 10. Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine. 11. Characterisation of inorganic compounds by IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, Mössbauer, UV-vis, NQR, MS, electron spectroscopy and microscopic techniques. 12. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis.
- Basic principles of quantum mechanics: Postulates; operator algebra; exactly- solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals; orbital and spin angular momenta; tunneling. 2. Approximate methods of quantum mechanics: Variational principle; perturbation theory up to second order in energy; applications. 3. Atomic structure and spectroscopy; term symbols; many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle. 4. Chemical bonding in diatomics; elementary concepts of MO and VB theories; Huckel theory for conjugated π-electron systems. 5. Chemical applications of group theory; symmetry elements; point groups; character tables; selection rules. 6. Molecular spectroscopy: Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities – selection rules; basic principles of magnetic resonance. 7. Chemical thermodynamics: Laws, state and path functions and their applications; thermodynamic description of various types of processes; Maxwell’s relations; spontaneity and equilibria; temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities; Le Chatelier principle; elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule; thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions. 8. Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution; kinetic theory of gases; partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities – calculations for model systems. 9. Electrochemistry: Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells; Debye-Huckel theory; electrolytic conductance – Kohlrausch’s law and its applications; ionic equilibria; conductometric and potentiometric titrations. 10. Chemical kinetics: Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence; complex reactions; steady state approximation; determination of reaction mechanisms; collision and transition state theories of rate constants; unimolecular reactions; enzyme kinetics; salt effects; homogeneous catalysis; photochemical reactions. 11. Colloids and surfaces: Stability and properties of colloids; isotherms and surface area; heterogeneous catalysis. 12. Solid state: Crystal structures; Bragg’s law and applications; band structure of solids. 13. Polymer chemistry: Molar masses; kinetics of polymerization. 14. Data analysis: Mean and standard deviation; absolute and relative errors; linear regression; covariance and correlation coefficient.
- IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers. 2. Principles of stereochemistry: Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds; stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction. 3. Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds – generation and reactions. 4. Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes. 5. Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways. 6. Common named reactions and rearrangements – applications in organic synthesis. 7. Organic transformations and reagents: Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions; common catalysts and reagents (organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic). Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations. 8. Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups. 9. Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction – substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions; determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess; enantio-discrimination. Resolution – optical and kinetic. 10. Pericyclic reactions – electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions. Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry. 11. Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms (O, N, S).
- Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids. 13. Structure determination of organic compounds by IR, UV-Vis, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic techniques.
Calculus and Real Analysis
Real Line: Limits, continuity, di_erentiablity, Reimann integration, sequences, series, lim-sup, lim-inf, pointwise and uniform convergence, uniform continuity, Taylor expansions.
Multivariable: Limits, continuity, partial derivatives, chain rule, directional derivatives, total derivative, Jacobian, gradient, line integrals, surface integrals, vector _elds, curl, divergence, Stoke’s theorem.
General: Metric spaces, Heine Borel theorem, Cauchy sequences, completeness, Weierstrass approximation.
Holomorphic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, integration, zeroes of analytic functions, Cauchy formulas, maximum modulus theorem, open mapping theorem, Louville’s theorem, poles and singularities, residues and contour integration, conformal maps, Rouche’s theorem, Morera’s theorem.
Existence & uniqueness theorem, General theory of homogenous and non-homogenous equations with constant coefficients, Theory of equations with variable coefficients, Method of variation parameter and the formula for particular integral in terms of Wronskian. Series Solution of Second order linear differential equations near ordinary point, Singularity and the solution in the neighbourhood of regular singular point, Euler equation and Frobenious method, Solution of Legendre, Bessel, Hypergeometric, Hermite and Lagurre differential equation. Formulation of Heat conduction equation and its solution by variable separation method, SteadyState condition and the solution of heat conduction problem with non-zero end conditions. Formation of Wave equation and the solution of Wave equation. Linear homogeneous Boundary Value Problems, Eigen values and Eigen functions, Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems, Non-homogeneous Boundary Value Problems, and Non-homogeneous heat conduction problems. Green’s functions and the solution of Boundary Value Problems in terms of Green’s functions, Concept of stability, asymptotic stability and instability of a solution of the autonomous system dx/dt = F(x,y), dy/dt = G(x,y)
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method for simple and multiple roots and its convergence. Solution of system of non-linear equations by Iteration and Newton-Raphson method. Lagrange’s form of interpolating polynomial. Existence and uniqueness of interpolating polynomial, Piecewise interpolation, Hermite and Cubic spline interpolation. Least square approximation : Weighted least square approximation. Method of least square for continuous functions, orthogonal polynomials, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process and approximation of functions using Chebyshev polynomials. Numerical integration by Romberg method; Guassian quadrature formula and error estimation. Numerical solution of initial value problems: Runge Kutta method of order four for system of equations and for second and higher order differential equations. Boundary Value problems by Finite difference method and shooting method. Convergence of finite difference scheme. Numerical solution of partial differential equations: Parabolic equations- finite difference approximation to partial diff. derivatives, explicit method and Crank-Nicolson method with stability analysis. Elliptic equations- Standard five point formula, Jacobi’s iteration method and Leibmann’s method. Hyperbolic equations: Explicit finite difference method.